Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith proposed the term cognitive dissonance which is Every individual has his or her Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J. M. ( ). The following article by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith is the classic study on Reprinted from Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, , 58, . Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith () conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. This study.

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While fringe members were more inclined to recognize that they had made fools of themselves and to “put it down to experience,” committed members were more likely to re-interpret the evidence to show that they were right all along the earth was not destroyed because of the faithfulness of the cult members. While the S was working on these tasks the E sat, with a stop watch restinger his hand, busily making notations on a sheet of paper.

Forced compliance theory

Acta Psychologica15, Let us carsmith of the sum of all the dissonances involving some particular cognition as “D” and the sum of all the consonances as “C.

Views Read Edit View history. Ashmore and Collins conducted an experiment called “Studies in Forced Compliance: Why this might have been the case is, of course, not immediately apparent. It also seems to be the case that we value most highly those goals or items which have required considerable effort to achieve.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory | Simply Psychology

Actually this finding by Kelman is consistent with the theory we will outline below but, for a number of reasons is not conclusive. The hour which the S spent working on the repetitive, monotonous tasks was intended to provide, for each S uniformly, an experience about which he would have a somewhat negative opinion.

It is also a strong motivational tool in influencing us to choose one action or thought over another. They could only overcome that dissonance by coming to believe that the tasks really were interesting and enjoyable. Aim To investigate the relationship between dissonance and effort.


Results Participants in the ‘severe embarrassment’ condition gave the most positive rating. These were Festinger and Carlsmith’s actual ‘control’ group. This hypothetical stress brings the subject to intrinsically believe that the activity is indeed interesting and enjoyable.

Save this course for later Don’t czrlsmith time for it all now? The experimenter suggested that he had talked to the Professor in charge of the experiment and had got his clearance to ask the subject to take on the role of the associate and the Professor had agreed that this would be in order.

Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, This study consisted of sixty-sixty male college students who were asked to record a counter-attitudinal 9159 concerning a serious issue.

The influence of role-playing on opinion change. Hence, one would expect the results on this question to be very similar to the results on “how enjoyable the tasks were” but weaker. Let us review these briefly: The rub is that making a decision cuts off the possibility that you can enjoy the advantages of the unchosen alternative, yet it assures you that you must accept the disadvantages of the chosen alternative. One way in which the dissonance can be reduced is for the person to change his private opinion so as to bring it into correspondence with what he has said.

The effect of severity of initiation on liking for a group. Is it a perception as ‘cognitive’ suggestsor a feeling, or a feeling about a perception? He reasoned that if the person is induced to make an overt statement contrary to his private opinion by the offer of some reward, then the greater the reward offered, the greater should be the subsequent opinion change.

Could we generalize the results from such experiments? This is further explained in Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith’s study in Login Sign Up Privacy Policy. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 52 3fesringer The students will be interviewed after participating in the experiment and were encouraged to be festinegr honest in these interviews.


Actually, the result, as may be seen in the table, are in exactly the same direction, and the magnitude of the mean differences is fully as large as on the first question. Because these participants did not make a decision, they did not have any dissonance to reduce. Two S s both in the One Dollar condition told the girl that they had been hired, that the experiment festinber really boring but they were supposed to say it was fun. At the close of the interview the S was asked what he thought the experiment was about and, following this, was asked directly whether fesginger not he was suspicious festonger anything and, if so, what he was suspicious of.

Two derivations from this theory are tested here. Conflict, decision, and dissonance Vol. A person could convince themself that it is better to “live for today” than to “save for tomorrow. This article is a part of the guide: Select from one of the other courses available: The participants were 71 male students in totality.

We wish to thank Leonard Hommel, Judson Mills, and Robert Terwilliger for their help in designing and carrying out the experiment. The difference between the One and Twenty Dollar conditions reaches the.

In the ‘mild embarrassment’ condition, participants read aloud to a male experimenter a list of sex-related words like ‘virgin’ and ‘prostitute. In all conditions, they then heard a very boring discussion about sex in lower animals. In short, when an S was induced, by offer of reward, to say something contrary to his private opinion, this private opinion tended to change so as to correspond more closely with feetinger he had said.